Employers of registered engineers have the assurance of knowing that their engineers have received education and training that has enabled them to gain the recognition of their peers as meeting Malaysia and international standards for knowledge and experience. Their credentials have been verified, and their commitment to continuing professional education established. Maintaining registration will ensure that they are exposed to new developments in their profession, and provides numerous opportunities to benefit from these. It also means that they are governed by a professional code of conduct, and receive
reminders and assistance in determining their obligations under this. In some cases, evidence of employing registered engineers is necessary to the award of contracts in Malaysia and overseas.
Professional Engineers who register benefit from the achievement and self esteem of meeting Malaysia and international standards for knowledge and experience. Whether specified in job advertisements or not, registration as a professional gives an edge to candidates who have it. Registration links the engineer into a professional Institution, assessed by the Board of Engineers Malaysia as capable of providing comprehensive professional development guidance and opportunities, with a regular magazine to assist in this, and many opportunities to network with colleagues with similar professional interests. It also keeps them abreast of job opportunities, and is a regular reminder of their professional standing and the obligations they owe to society.
The Economy benefits from the registration of engineers because it encourages engineers to undertake additional study and experience to maintain their employability, and to ensure their flexibility in the face of changing circumstances. This aids economic development, and employment flexibility. The commitment to a code of professional conduct helps to avoid anti-competitive bad practice, and the networking implicit in membership of a professional Institution helps to ensure the spread of best practice despite competitive pressures.
How to Become a Professional Engineer
– To become a Professional Engineer, you need to demonstrate you have appropriate competence and commitment. These are demonstrated by
i) Your academic qualifications;
ii) Your experience and training,;
iii) By an assessment, the Professional Interview, which
may involve your writing essays and attending an
iv) By membership of a Corporate of IEM
To obtain the IEM Corporate Membership, graduate engineers who have registered to the Board of Engineers Malaysia need to;
- Submit the Forms
- Attend the 3 main courses (Safety/Ethics/Management)
- Submit the project/experience report
- Attend the oral examination; and
- Complete the written question (below). My apology if IEM has already changed the question set.
Competence is the ability to carry out a task to an effective standard. To achieve competence requires the right level of knowledge, understanding and skill, and a professional attitude. Competence is developed by a combination of formal and informal learning, and training and experience, generally known as initial
professional development. However, these elements are not necessarily separate or sequential and they may not always be formally structured.
Registered engineers and technicians demonstrate a personal and professional commitment to society, their profession and the environment. They are required to show that they have adopted a set of values and behaviours that will maintain and enhance the reputation of the profession. Specific evidence is required in the
• Complying with codes of conduct
• Managing and applying safe systems of work
• Undertaking engineering activities in a way that contributes to sustainable
• Carrying out CPD necessary to maintain and enhance competence
• Actively participating within the profession.
There are five generic areas of competence and commitment for all registrants, broadly covering:
1. Knowledge and understanding.
2. Design and development of processes, systems, services and products.
3. Responsibility, management or leadership
4. Communication and inter-personal skills
5. Professional commitment
What are the interviewers/evaluator looking for?
Professional Engineer are characterised by their ability to develop appropriate solutions to engineering problems, using new or existing technologies, through innovation, creativity and change. They may develop and apply new technologies, promote advanced
designs and design methods, introduce new and more efficient production techniques and marketing and construction concepts, and pioneer new engineering services and management methods. They may be involved with the management and direction of high-risk and resource-intensive projects. Professional judgement is a key feature of their role, allied to the assumption of responsibility for the direction of important tasks, including the profitable
management of industrial and commercial enterprises.
The purpose of the interview is to confirm that you have attained the necessary competences. To this end, the interviewers make a holistic assessment of your professional competence and give you an opportunity to expand on the information in your application. They will also clarify any outstanding issues and give you the opportunity to demonstrate your commitment to the profession.
Code of Ethics Essay Questions
As a young engineer, you are instructed by your employer to prepare a bankable report for a prospective project based on the information provided by your employer. You have no access to ascertain the reliability of the information provided. In light of the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct, how do you advise your employer so that you may complete your assignment with integrity.
You should at least include below points:
1. A member shall inform his employer in writing of any conflict between his personal interest and faithful service to his employer.
2. A member shall at all times take care to ensure that his work and the products of his work constitute no avoidable danger of death or injury or ill health to any person.
3. A member shall take all reasonable steps to avoid waste of natural resources, damage of the environment and wasteful damage or destruction of the products of human skill and industry.
You are assigned by your employer to prospect an area for an extractable mineral(s). However, in the course of your work, you discover no such object mineral(s) but some other valuable mineral(s) which is your employer is (are) not interested.
On the other hand, the information which you have is of great importance to the adjoining interest. As an engineer can you release the particular information which you have to the other party so that the other valuable mineral(s) may be explored. Please discuss taking into consideration provisions of the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct .
You should at least include below points:
1. A member shall not improperly disclose any information concerning the business of his employer or of any past employer.
Mr X is a project engineer for a project contracted to Y Company owned by Mr Z. Mr Z tells Mr X that he is ordering the latest model of an electronic gadget for his company staff and he can get a set for Mr X at the company discounted price. Mr X agrees and pays on delivery. Did Mr X breach the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct?
You should at least include below points:
1. A member shall not accept remuneration in connection with professional services rendered to his employer other than from his employer or with his employer’s consent; nor shall be receive directly or indirectly any royalty, gratuity or commission on any article or process used in or for the purposes of the work in respect of which he is employed unless or until such royalty, gratuity or commission has been authorised in writing by his employer.
“It is the responsibility of every engineer to give the highest regard to his profession and conduct himself with integrity when executing his task”. Discuss this statement in detail within the context of the Malaysian environment.
The roles of engineers are respectively wide. Amongst the major responsibilities for engineers are design, construction supervision, consultation, project procurement, commissioning and management etc. Engineers are responsible to give the highest regard to his profession and conduct himself with integrity when executing his task. For example a good design solution would have to include two important aspects namely design adequacy and cost effectiveness. In addition, engineers have obligation to generate design solutions that are environmental friendly at the same time meeting the demanding requirements of client. Engineers have a duty of care to the environment, society and to their valuable customers or clients. They would have to generate design that fulfil the design clauses in the engineering codes of design, meeting the requirements by the various Governmental Departments and incorporate design solutions that are environmental friendly which induce minimum negative impacts to the surrounding environment and society. Besides, engineers would have to take into consideration the cost implication of their design solution to their clients. This has caused great dilemma in engineers, as they have to balance cost implication of the design solution with other factors such as quality, efficiency and various socio-economy factors.
In the context of a developing country like Malaysia, in some cases, clients however have different mindset from that of the engineers. Clients are more concern about the cost implication of the generated design solution; they are more interested in design solution that is cost effective and yet fulfils the minimum design requirements by the Government. In this respect, clients would normally opt for design solutions that are cost effective, that stay within their budget.
Some clients would incorporate project budget that is far inadequate which requires the engineers to sacrifice the quality and long-term efficiencies aspects in their design solution. This has obviously contradicted with the engineers’ interests of incorporating optimum design that would guarantee long-term efficiencies and easy maintenance. In addition, a not-up-to the standards design solution that obviously with an associated lower construction cost would mean that the engineer would be getting a much lesser consultation fees in view that the engineering fees are normally proportional to the cost expenditure of the project. However these two factors, namely the cost factors and quality are normally indirectly proportional to one another. This has made the engineers’ life extremely tough and difficult.
Engineers are constantly wondering if they should go for expensive design solution that would definitely give both long-term efficient operations and maintenance and most importantly getting a higher professional fees, or go for an ‘ok’ design solution that might not be able to guarantee the quality aspects of the project and yet getting a lower professional fees.
In view of the dilemma that engineers are constantly encountering in balancing capital expenditure with optimum design for efficient operations and maintenance, engineers should by all means combine both the design and cost aspects in the process of generating design solutions for their clients. Engineers should not produce a cheap design solution that does not comply with the relevant code of practices with the purpose just to please their valuable clients, hoping for more projects. Neither should they generate expensive design, ignore the cost implication of that particular design and with the purpose to obtain higher professional fee.
Professionalism cannot be taught by regurgitating the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct nor by memorizing a set of rules. Do you agree with the statement and why?
Yes, I do. Let’s begin by the definition of “Professional”. Professional person is one who engages in an activity that requires a specialised & comprehensive education, and is motivated by a strong desire to serve humanity. Professional thinks & acts in a manner that brings favour upon the individual & the entire profession. Professional, besides technically competent, shall have a positive attitude toward life that is continually reinforced by educational accomplishments & professional service.
Professionalism is a way of thinking and living rather than an accumulation of learning. Professionalism cannot be taught by stating a code of ethics nor by memorising a set of rules. A strong professional sense is of undoubted benefit to the profession concerned in terms of morale and vocational satisfaction. It is also a fact that the community benefits when it is served by a professional whose standing is recognised, in terms both of status and rewards. It is through the development of a strong professional attitude that the professional man is motivated to give his biggest contribution to the community. It is probable that professional attitudes and professional motivation are prerequisites to community recognition and to a reasonable level of reward, but the one depends very much upon the other.
Ethics means something more than “law” and “morals”; it carries an additional connotation of “rightess”. The Code, therefore, is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct, nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is a statement of the principles of “rightness”, of broad scope, and with enough detail to enable an intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own professional conduct. The essence of all professional codes is that the professional man must be worthy, through his conduct, of the trust placed in him by the community and by colleagues. This gives rise to a universal rule of life for every engineer who spires to true professional status: to act in every situation in a manner that will add to the confidence and esteem in which his profession is held by the community.
The IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct speaks against active self promotion and advertisement. In what ways would such restraint enhance the stature of engineers as professionals? More importantly, given the advent of the information technology age where virtual reality is becoming the norm, how would any violation of the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct be detected and dealt with?
Engineering has been regarded as one of the greatest professions on earth that has contributed in various positive impacts to the society and country. However, misuse of professional knowledge or adoption of bad would incur various negative social illnesses to society and country. One of the most profound social illnesses that has been closely linked to the engineering profession is the wide spread of corruption or unwise practices amongst certain group of engineers such as slef promotion and advertisement.
IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct speaks against active self promotion and advertisement. Self-promoting is unethical as typically large amount of money will be used for promotion of in worse case the lobbying process. Those costs could be effectively used to improve the existing system and could be spent for multi researches.
The Internet has emerged as a powerful tool for practitioners, professionals, teachers and clients alike. In IEM context, not only does it allow engineers to gather a wide range of information quickly, it’s also become a springboard for providing engineering services, particularly to geographically isolated clients who would otherwise go without. It is inexpensive, saves time, allows a lot of people to be well-informed of the services provided. At this moment of time, the detection is only when someone come across the advertisement of the services provided by the engineers in the Internet. Those who discover this could either report it to IEM or remain silent. If the person proceeds with the writing statement to IEM, IEM disciplinary board will either suspend the membership or the person will be given a warning. This process is a waste of energy and time. If all the engineers in Malaysia could be embedded with the Code of Ethics, especially at the university level, I believe the community will be served more equally in a professional way. The clients should look for those self-promoting engineers in the Internet as non-compliance person. Therefore public also need to be knowledgeable of the basic Professional Conducts of engineers.
You are an engineer and it is known that your project activities/ plant production had caused an adverse health, safety and/or environmental (HSE) impact. To improve the HSE quality, you have to cease your project activities/plant production for a period, resulting in the inability to meet the schedule and targets.
How would you handle in a situation where there is a conflict between the IEM’s Regulations on Professional Conduct and commercial consideration?
You should at least include below points:
A member shall at all times take care to ensure that his work and the products of his work constitute no avoidable danger of death or injury or ill health to any person.
Therefore, engineers should hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. Engineers having knowledge of any alleged violation of this Code shall report thereon to appropriate professional bodies and, when relevant, also to public authorities, and cooperate with the proper authorities in furnishing such information or assistance as may be required.
Very often codes of practice suggest discretion of engineering judgement. The merits and demerits of international codes of practice and standards as opposed to national documents within the context of the Malaysian industry and practices.
Discuss by giving examples of engineering judgement whereby such decision does not conform to a code of practice and how it is justified. Is international conformity always desirable?
Engineers are often entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale projects involving millions of dollars. In view of the large amount of money changing hands, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are being put to test. What measures can an engineer take to prevent corruption and unethical practice of cutting corners in order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession?
Engineering is one of the most challenging professions on earth. The engineering profession is a high-risk profession, which involves construction and development etc. Engineering could be a rather lucrative profession if manage properly. As the saying goes, high gain is always associated with high risk. The same goes for engineering industry. Engineers, especially civil engineers are often entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale projects involving millions of dollars. As a result, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are seriously being put into test. In the following section of this essay, I would like to discuss the necessary measures that an engineer could adopt to prevent corruption and unethical practices of cutting corners in order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession in the country.
2. Measures to prevent corruption and unethical practice
2.1 Code of Ethics
Various measures can be adopted by engineers in the direction to prevent corruption and unethical practices in the engineering profession. One of the most important measures is the familiarisation with the code of ethics. Engineers must get themselves familiar with the code of ethics that govern the duties and responsibilities of engineers. Ethics means something more than “law” and “morals”; it carries an additional connotation of “rightess”. The Code, therefore, is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct, nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is a statement of the principles of “rightness”, of broad scope, and with enough detail to enable an intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own professional conduct. The engineering code of ethics explain and illustrate the right tasks that an engineer should perform and the wrongdoings that he/she is prohibited from undertaking such as unwise practices of cutting corner, corruptions etc.
2.2 Self Awareness
Apart from familiarisation with the engineering code of ethics, engineers should posses relatively high self-awareness of their duties and obligations towards the society and country. Engineers are involving in construction activities such as construction of buildings, houses and infrastructures etc. that can profoundly affect the life of members of the society. As a result, engineering tasks are significantly important and any mistakes or negligence leading to collapse of the buildings due to unwise practices would claim hundreds to thousands of life. In this respect, engineers must posses a relatively high self-awareness of their responsibilities and obligations towards the society and country in order to minimise possible unethical practices and corruptions.
One of the most effective means in preventing corruptions or cutting corners is to engage a third party as checker for the design works or construction project. This third party, called a ‘checker’, could play the role as an inspector for all related construction works inclusive of design, construction supervision and commissioning of works. The engagement of the ‘checker’ is to ensure that all related project works are carried out in accordance to international best practices, sound engineering judgements and all works are complying with relevant engineering codes. This has been one of most effective measures that are being widely adopted in the engineering industry to prevent and minimize possible unethical practices from taking place.
2.4 Stiffer Penalty
Apart from engaging a third party as ‘checker’ for the project, another effective measure that has not been widely practised in Malaysia is to impose stiffer penalties for those who committed wrongdoings such as unethical practices and corruptions. The laws in Malaysia have been too lenient to the developers, contractors and engineers. Stiffer penalties should be imposed to those who has been found guilty of adopting unethical practices. Penalties such as heavy financial penalties combined with imprisonment, revoke licence of developers, contractors or engineers etc. could be enforced in order to prevent the widespread unethical practices in the engineering industry.
2.5 To organize awareness talk
Other effective measures in the direction to prevent corruption and unethical practices in the engineering profession are to organize awareness talks, seminars or workshops in a more frequent basis. These events would target those that are involved in the construction industry including developers, contractors, engineers etc. in order to instil high awareness in all parties of the importance in adopting good practices in the engineering profession.
Conflict of professional interest frequently arises in the working environment of an engineer. Discuss the statement and propose the appropriate solutions for overcoming the problems.
Conflict is so common in today’s world that is full with sophistication and complexity. All of us are facing with some kind of conflicts in our daily life. We are frequently encountering conflicts with our family members, friends, colleagues or even our bosses. Even the countries worldwide are having conflicts with each other such as conflict betweenUnited States and Republic of China. Conflict occurs as a result of different views, opinions and different interests in individual, society or country. Everybody, individuals, societies or countries are looking into their opinions and interests respectively. They adopt a defensive view of their opinions and interests. As a result, conflict occurs when one is disagree with another’s opinion. In the following section of this essay, I will discuss the conflict of professional interest in the working environment of an engineer in particular for the civil engineer, and suggest the appropriate solutions for overcoming these problems.
As mentioned in the earlier section, conflict occurs as a result of different opinions and interests in oneself from that of others. Engineering industry is a comparatively wide profession that involves various parties such as developers, contractors and consultant engineers etc. These parties would have their own interests and are always be there to safeguard their interests respectively. As a result, conflicts frequently arise in the working environment of the engineers. Developers are the clients for the construction project. They are basically businessmen that invest in property development and their main objective is to obtain profitability. Developers are basically the cost-conscious group and they are very concern about the cost aspects of the project.
As for contractors, they are also cost-conscious but their main interest is to complete the project fast within the allocated timeframe in order for them to claim construction fees in soonest possible time. Consultant engineers however are more concern about the quality of works of the construction activities. They are there to ensure that the construction works are carried out in accordance to relevant engineering codes and complying with international best practices. The different interests in these parties have resulted in conflicts occurring between these parties in a frequent basis.
Various effective measures can be adopted in the direction to reduce conflicts between the developers, contractors and consultant engineers. One of the most effective measures towards reducing conflicts is to cultivate mutual respect between each other. All the three parties would have to instil a relatively high awareness in themselves on the other parties responsibilities and interests. They have to be aware of and understand the interests of the other parties. Developers, contractors and consultant engineers would have to respect each other and compromise solution that could meet requirements of all the three parties respectively. In this respect, they could perhaps create shared objectives or goals that mutually meet the critical requirements of all parties in order to avoid any unnecessary conflicts from occurring.
Developers, contractors and consultant engineers would have to meet each other in a more frequent basis to discuss as well as resolve construction issues in a speedy manner. Very common, construction industry is flooded with various construction issues and problems. However conflicts would occur if these issues were not being resolved in a speedy manner. As a result, all parties must meet in a more frequent basis in order to resolve necessary site problems without delay. This is important to avoid any unnecessary conflicts from developing. In addition, all parties must ensure that effective communication is taken place in order to minimise unnecessary conflicts as a result of miscommunication.
Perhaps the most important measure to minimise conflict is to put yourself into other people shoes. One would have to possess high self-awareness and be able to understand the other’s parties concerns in order to gain respect in the society. Developers, contractors and consultant engineers must try to understand the responsibilities and obligations of one another respectively in order to minimise unnecessary conflicts from occurring.
Most projects are awarded on a competitive bidding basis. Supposing you had been the designated engineer of one of the bidders which was not awarded the letter of intent by the Client. You are then approached by the ‘winner’ to join the Consultant Team. Should you accept the second appointment? If yes, describe the situations, which might be seen as conflict of interests. If no, describe the reasons and/or clear-cut situations why you should decline the second appointment.
Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested parties
Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
You are in a position of responsibility administering an institution of higher learning with limited resources. You have been assigned to revise the engineering curriculum and directed to increase the number of graduates. From the standpoint of professional conduct, describe the necessary curriculum contents which must be included so as not to compromise the engineering standards.
This is refering to the conservative universities which offer fundamental engineering curriculum without compromising engineering standards. With limited resources, e.g. lecturers, facilities and funds, the design of the curriculum is as follows;
Mathematics Courses- Even though mathematics courses are not engineering courses in and of themselves, proficiency is very
important for those who wish to be successful in engineering. In my revision of the engineering curriculum, a fair share of mathematics classes will be at a higher priority. Algebra, Calculus, Trigonometry, Differential Equations and coordinate geometry are an integral part of the engineering curriculum.
Science Courses- Science courses are another big component in our engineering curriculum, particularly if student’s concentration is in an area like biological or chemical engineering. Physics, chemistry and computer science are all important aspects of an engineering program. Even if the student’s concentration is in civil engineering, they will be expected to cover at least the introductory areas of chemistry and physics. The computer sciences are often tailored to the specific needs of the engineering curriculum, and they will probably find that proficiency in this area will be very helpful to the rest of their studies.
Engineering Courses- Engineering courses themselves are at the heart of every engineering curriculum. The types of classes students participate will depend in large part upon your area of concentration. In the first year however, engineering courses tend to be more introductory and also focused on the tools they need to do the job; computers in particular. Once they understand the basics, their engineering curriculum will concentrate on their area of specialization. For example, if the student’s focus on electronics engineering, he will take a lot of solid state physics and semiconductor device classes, in addition to classes on circuit theory and logic circuits.
General Studies Courses – Most four-year universities in the United States and Japan want to ensure that their graduates are well-rounded and conversant in areas apart from their specialization. As a result, their engineering curriculum will include diverse classes like English composition, Japanese literature, economics, anthropology, music appreciation and political science. I will revise these subjects and compile them into General Subject in the first year and Engineering Management in the final year.
Corruption has undermined integrity in professional practice in the engineering industry. The professional engineer who steadfastly embraces the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct is left in a dilemma. His option is that he could just ignore it or turn whistle blower. Explain how you would handle this problem.
You should at least include below points:
He shall not under any circumstances solicit advisory or consultative work, either directly or by an agent, nor shall he pay, by commission or otherwise, any person who may introduce clients to him.
Assuming that you are the principal partner of a reputable engineering-based firm in a small state in the country. Your family is very well reputed, respected and influential, having lived and worked in the state for decades.
Leaders of a certain political party approach you seeking your assistance to campaign for them in a forthcoming state by-election. Amongst others, upon winning the said elections, they have promised to award your company with all the major projects awarded by the state government. It is desirable for your firm to secure new projects. Discuss critically on your actions, taking account of the IEM’s Regulations on Professional Conduct
You should at least include below points:
Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.
Engineers shall undertake assignments only when qualified by education or experience in the specific technical fields involved.
Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter in which they lack competence, nor to any plan or document not prepared under their direction and control.
Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly or indirectly, any contribution to influence the award of a contract by public authority, or which may be reasonably construed by the public as having the
effect or intent of influencing the awarding of a contract. They shall not offer any gift or other valuable consideration in order to secure work. They shall not pay a commission, percentage, or brokerage fee in order to secure work, except to a bona fide employee or bona fide established commercial or marketing agencies retained by them.
To discuss the roles and key challenges in the academic profession to ensure that local university produces competent and responsible engineers. To identify differences, if any between the local and oversea experiences.
In a book book entitled “Citizen Engineer” by David Douglas, I understand that being an engineer today means being far more than an engineer. We need to consider not only the design requirements of our projects but the full impact of our work–from an ecological perspective, an intellectual property perspective, a business perspective, and a sociological perspective.
Therefore in this era, the author integrate “a competent” and “a responsible” engineer to a new nomenclature, i.e. Citizen Engineer. The book also explains a critical transition of the engineering profession from technical focus to include social responsibilities and business context. This shift has changed the very nature of engineering as it is practiced today and as it must be taught in engineering degree programs.
The traditional university restricted itself mainly to a close circle of professors and students from the upper strata of society and lived in relative isolation. It produced the elite of the nation, and society — so to speak — had to adopt to the elite. Research was the privilege of the professors, determined to a large extent by personal interests and their contacts among each other. Consequenly, this university lost contact with society until it was completely isolated and did not understand the issues of its surroundings.
Furthermore, in this IT era, where students can access to unlimited amount of information, the role of the institution of higher learning is increasing. As students always confused by the abundant of information they have in hands, students at all levels need to be challenged to recognize the foundational importance of practical knowledge in problem solving.
The key challenge that universities are facing is how to promote a culture of continuous improvement and accountability. Students are not really motivated into inventions any more these days. Most of them seem satisfied with what others have invented. Students are more into computers communication rather than physically see the lecturers. This therefore will deteriorate their basic important skill which is oral communication. Universities need to minimize this trend by introducing more society related projects such mentoring secondary school students to develop microcontrollers etc.
When I was in Japan, I saw many collaboration works being carried out with the industry. Laboratories received a lot of funds to do research. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) developed numbers of commercialized projects with University of Tokyo. This trends need to be further discuss in the university for a better future.
- UK Standard for Professional Engineering Competence. 3rd Edition